1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The World Vision is an organization which helps the community by sponsoring children and people having difficult life by providing the human basic requirements including Education, Health and spiritual wellbeing. STRATEGIC LOCATION AND LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS World Vision in Korogwe is found near TRA Offices, about 3 minutes by car from Korogwe Bus stand, the Environment is good encouraging workers to perform fully jobs, we have enough working resources such as Wireless Internet for communication friendly working computers that facilitate work and researches, One can get most out of making full use of the available resources. VISION The Vision is to be the best and real-world training provider in the region by reaching out all required levels of standards. MISSION To provide efficient, affordable and customized technical and vocational training to all.
COMPUTER HARDWARE AND MAINTENANCE
Computer maintenance involve dealings with different services and problems where by different computer encountered .This include installation of different software, updating of different software and troubleshooting of softwares . Both personal and company computer systems require maintenance in order ensure a good performance.
The first section of this chapter we should cover the basic hardware components that make up the personal computer. It starts by describing the components typically found inside the system unit.
The second section cover how the basic computer system communicates and interacts with the world around it (that is, input, output, and I/O devices).
The final section of the our introduces the fundamental software components that work together to control the operation of the system’s hardware.
A video card, display card, graphics card, Display Adapter or graphics adapter is an expansion cards which generates a feed of output images to a display. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors (multi–monitor).
- HEAT SINK
A Heat Sink Is mounted on high performance graphics cards. A heat sink spreads out the heat produced by the graphics processing unit evenly throughout the heat sink and unit itself. The heat sink commonly has a fan mounted as well to cool the heat sink and the graphics processing unit.
A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive, hard disk, or disk drive) is a device for storing and retrieving digital information, primarily computer data. It consists of one or more rigid (hence “hard”) rapidly rotating discs (often referred to as and with magnetic arranged to write data to the surfaces and read it from them.
A power supply unit (PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of the computer to be working properly. Modern personal computers universally use a switched-mode power supply. Some power supplies have a manual selector for input voltage, while others automatically adapt to the supply voltage.
The central processing unit (CPU) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The CPU plays a role somewhat analogous to the brain in the computer. The term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation remains much the same.
In computing, memory refers to the physical devices used to store programs (sequences of instructions) or data (e.g. program state information) on a temporary or permanent basis for use in a computer or other digital electronic device. The term primary memory is used for the information in physical systems which are fast (i.e. RAM), as a distinction from secondary memory, which are physical devices for program and data storage which are slow to access but offer higher memory capacity. Primary memory stored on secondary memory is called “virtual memory”
4. HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Computer Hardware Installation is sometimes called PC Assembling involves putting together all component of a computer to make computer function as normal.
When all components of a computer are separated to each another the computer is no longer a computer but what remain are the components of that computer. After buying all the computer components they must be put together. This process is called assembling. Assembling a computer must be done carefully so as to avoid unnecessary damage to the system. The resource should be sufficiently detailed that it should enable anyone seeing it to build a PC successfully.
- MATERIALS REQUIRED
The following are some of material which required when someone preferred to perform pc assembling. When perform that task we should ensure that we have all the below materials before starting
- Hard disk Drive
- CD Drive/ DVD Drive
Proper preparation is the key to a successful build. Before you begin, make sure you have all the tools you will need, secure a clear, well-lit workspace, gather all the components you’ll be using and unpack them one at a time, verifying that everything that is supposed to be there is actually present. Find a dry, well-ventilated place to do your work. You should have plenty of light and if possible, you should choose an area without carpet on the floor, as carpet tends to generate a lot of static. An unfurnished basement is a good work location
PROCEDURE TO INSTALL OS, SEVEN PRO AND XP SPARK 3.
- WHAT IS OS
Windows xp is the operating system software which is used to operate the hardware, software and also to make an interface between the user and computer.
There are different operating systems such as;
All windows are doing the same thing that is to make an interface between computer and user so as they can understand each other.
Here we are seeing the installations of Windows xp and Windows 7.Proffessional
- PROCEDURES OF INSTALL OS XP SERVICE 1,3 /7 SERVICE1 PROFF.
- Insert a CD labeled windows xp /window 7 Profession into CD/DVD ROM device of the machine.
- Reboot the machine and entering the BIOS in order to set the proper booting sequence, by pressing F2 keyboard key depending on the type of computer, for this case I was perfuming on dell laptop.
- Select CD/DVD ROM as the first booting device.
- Press F10 key of the keyboard to save changes and later the machine will reboot.
- After machine reboot user will be prompted to press any key to start installation, after pressing any setup will start.
- The windows installation will start to inspect the system hardware, then setup will provide three options, do you want to install windows press enter, to repair press R, and to exit press esc key,
- Press enter button then you have to agree the terms and conditions by pressing F8,
- Setup will then provide options of partitioning the Hard disk drive, so you have to press D in order to delete the existing partition and then press L, after that you have to press C in order to create the partitions.
- After creating partitions setup will continue with formatting the partition.
- Later setup will start copying files necessary for the installation into the Windows installation folder.
- After copying files machine will reboot and continuing with installation.
- Later setup will prompt user to set the required settings such as time and date (GMT),for this case I set to Nairobi.
- Then the installation of window xp will be done.
- The window XP, 7 been installed successfully.
- PROCEDURE TOINSTALL MICROSOFT OFFICE 2007
- Insert a CD labeled Microsoft office 2007 into CD/DVD ROM device of the machine.
- Opening a CD and double click the setup button.
- After that installation of Microsoft office 2007 will start.
- Then you will have to agree with the terms and conditions of the Microsoft.
- So you have to accept and then you click continue.
- After that click install now icon then installation will begin.
- Click ‘finish’ to end up installation
- HOW TO INSTALL CITRIX PROGRAM
- select setup
- Select language and then OK
- Accept license agreement
- Select add ICP
- Click up file
- Double click find new application
- Click next in dialog box
- Enter description(KITM farm)
- Click server location
- In dialog box click TCP/IP in network protocol
- Add server IP, Iscala etc
- Click arrow to server location and then KITM farm
PROCEDURE TO INSTALL POWER SUPPLY
5.5 WHAT IS POWER SUPPLY
Is the device that converts AC power from the wall into the right kind of power for the individual parts of your computer.
When a power supply is about to be install the following steps or procedure should be followed
- Open the CPU(Central Processing U case by unit) by using a screw driver
- If there was another power supply present in that CPU disconnect the power cables to all peripherals attached to it this includes motherboard, CD- ROM drive, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk drive and Processor fan.
- Then remove the previous power supply by using a screw driver
- After removing it fix the new power supply by using the screw driver
- Then giver power to all peripherals like motherboard, CD- ROM drive, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk drive and Processor fan.
- After making sure that all the power cables of the power supply are connected to the particular peripherals give power to the CPU and switch on the computer to see if the power supply is working.
- If it is workings shut down the system and close the CPU case.
- Then connect you computer properly ready for use.
- PROCEDURE TO INSTALL RAM
- provides space for your computer to read and
- write data to be accessed by the CPU (central processing unit
- Open the CPU case.
- Identify the type of the RAM that your system is using.
- Fix the RAM at the appropriate slot.
- Make sure that the RAM is well fixed in its slot.
- Start the system to see if the system is working if it is working the memory will be added to the previous size and the operation of a computer will increase.
- Close the CPU case
- INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING
When someone talk about computer networks it generally refers to the connection of computers so as to enable them to share information and other resources such as printer, scanner, etc. computers may be connected with wires or without wires i.e. wireless, what matters is that they can communicate and by so doing they can exchange information and share some resources. This being the main purpose for computer networks, there exist several types of networks, categorizing by their item area networks and wide area networks.
The advancement in technology which led to the introduction of the internet made it possible for a standalone computer to be connected to the internet. The use of modems supplied by most telecommunication service providers has simplified it even more. Despite all these reasons, local area networks stands as a very useful network to an organization.
- Network – A network is a group of computers connected together in a way that allows information to be exchanged between the computers.
- Node – A node is anything that is connected to the network. While a node is typically a computer, it can also be something like a printer or CD-ROM tower.
- Segment – A segment is any portion of a network that is separated, by a switch, bridge or router, from other parts of the network.
- Backbone – The backbone is the main cabling of a network that all of the segments connect to. Typically, the backbone is capable of carrying more information than the individual segments. For example, each segment may have a transfer rate of 10 Mbps (megabits per second), while the backbone may operate at 100 Mbps.
- Topology – Topology is the way that each node is physically connected to the network (more on this in the next section).
- Local Area Network (LAN) – A LAN is a network of computers that are in the same general physical location, usually within a building or a campus. If the computers are far apart (such as across town or in different cities), then a Wide Area Network (WAN) is typically used.
- Network Interface Card (NIC) – Every computer (and most other devices) is connected to a network through an NIC. In most desktop computers, this is an Ethernet card (normally 10 or 100 Mbps) that is plugged into a slot on the computer’s motherboard
A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received. However, bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an address, it will send traffic for that address to that port only.
- LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)
A local-area network (LAN) is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings; however, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).
Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual computer ) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions.
LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates, much faster than data can be transmitted over a telephone line; but the distances are limited, and there is also a limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN.
- HOW TO TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORK
- Make Sure that your computer and everything attached to it is plugged in.
- Make sure that your computer is properly connected to the network.
- Not any error messages appear on the screen.
- Try restarting the computer.
- Try the built in window network troubleshooting.
- Check the free disk space on your computer and on the saver.
- TO TROUBLESHOOTING PRINTER AND INSERT RIBBON CATRIGDE TO LQ -2180
Procedure to insert ribbon cartridge
- Insert ribbon cartridge in a printer
- Tight ribbon cartridge roller
- locate ribbon cartridge to the hammer
- And then try to printing
- TROUBLESHOOTING OF PRINTER
- Check all cables are fixing properly
- Try to test print page
- (Second step)
- Turn OFF PC and Printer
- Turn ON printer and then PC
- Printer and Fax
- Select printer sign (tick)
- And then select any tab you wish to set
- And then test print page
- HOW TO SHARE NET WORK PRINTER
- My computer
- Computer name
- Change work group after that apply OK
- My computer
- My network
- Click search eg 172.20.52
- Double click folder of Printer Fax
- Open printer click connect and close
- Click printer then go to properties after that click print test page
- NETWORK CABLE TERMINATION
Is process to inserting the network cable to the RJ45/Switches or network port.
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